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School Discipline

Research related to the racial disparities in policies and practices related to school discipline.


See also the Civil Rights Project's Center for Civil Rights Remedies for information on additional school-to-prison pipeline research


Research Item Are We Closing the School Discipline Gap?
The main body of this report documents gross disparities in the use of out-of-school suspension experienced by students with disabilities and those from historically disadvantaged racial, ethnic, and gender subgroups. The egregious disparities revealed in the pages that follow transform concerns about educational policy that allows frequent disciplinary removal into a profound matter of civil rights and social justice. This implicates the potentially unlawful denial of educational opportunity and resultant disparate impact on students in numerous districts across the country.
Research Item Nation-wide Survey of State Education Agencies’ Online School Disciplinary Data for Students with Disabilities (Summer 2014)
School Disciplinary Data reported by SEAs online.
Research Item Keeping California's Kids in School
This report compares this year’s data release covering 2012-13 to the data released last year covering 2011-12. We find a reduction in the use of out-of-school suspension for every racial/ethnic group.
Research Item Nationwide Survey of State Education Agencies’ Online School Disciplinary Data (Fall 2013)
School Disciplinary Data reported by SEAs online.
Research Item Web Tool: Suspension Data by State or School District
For those working every day to plug the school-to-prison pipeline, access to timely data on suspensions and disparities between school districts is critical. This web tool developed allows users to access that information for their state or school district in minutes.
Research Item Out of School & Off Track: Reports by District
These regional reports detail suspension rates for students based on Department of Education data. Disaggregation by school level, race and disability status reveals profound disparities in the risk for out of school suspensions.
Research Item Out of School and Off Track: The Overuse of Suspensions in American Middle and High Schools
In this first of a kind breakdown of data from over 26,000 U.S. middle and high schools, CRP researchers estimate that well over two million students were suspended during the 2009-2010 academic year. This means that one out of every nine secondary school students was suspended at least once during that year. As other studies demonstrate, the vast majority of suspensions are for minor infractions of school rules, such as disrupting class, tardiness, and dress code violations, rather than for serious violent or criminal behavior. serious incidents are rare and result in expulsions, which are not covered by this report.
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